Calhoun County is a county in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 15,175, making it the third-least populous county in the state. Its county seat is St. Matthews. Located in a rural upland area long devoted to cotton plantations, part of the Black Belt of the South, the county was formed in 1908 from portions of Lexington and Orangeburg counties. It is named for John C. Calhoun, the former U.S. Vice-President, Senator, Representative and cabinet member from South Carolina. Calhoun County is part of the Columbia, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 392 square miles (1,020 km²), of which 381 square miles (990 km²) is land and 11 square miles (28 km²) (2.9%) is water. It is the second-smallest county in South Carolina by land area and smallest by total area.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,175 people, 6,080 households, and 4,204 families residing in the county. The population density was 39.8 inhabitants per square mile (15.4/km²). There were 7,340 housing units at an average density of 19.3 per square mile (7.5/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 53.9% white, 42.6% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.8% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, respondents identified as 42.6% of African American (which may include European ancestry; 15.4% American, 14.9% German, 8.5% Irish, and 7.1% of English heritage.
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